In the process of IVF fertilization is done in which an egg is combined with sperm outside the body.IVF refers to in vitro fertilization, where in vitro means ‘ in glass’. In this process monitoring and stimulation of womens ovulatory takes place, removing ovum from the women’s ovaries and letting sperm fertilise them in a liquid in a laboratory. After the fertilization of the egg undergoes for some days, it is implanted in the same or another woman’s uterus, with the aim of establishing a successful pregnancy.
It is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for treating infertility and for gestational surrogacy. IVF is not used generally until and unless less invasive or expensive options have failed or have been determined unlikely to work.
Success rate of IVF In India
The percentage of all IVF procedure that results in positive outcome is the success rate of IVF. this percentage may represent the number of confirmed pregnancies which is called pregnancy rate, or the number of live births which is called as live birth rate. The success rate of IVF depends on the variable factors like:
- Maternal age : success rate for younger candidates of IVF is higher as they are more likely to get pregnant. But in women who are of more than 41 years need donor eggs for successful pregnancy.
- Cause of infertility: The reason for infertility is main factor which decides the success rate of IVF
- Embryo status : The status of the embryo determines the success rate for this treatment.
- Reproductive history: success rate for IVF pregnancy is higher in women who have been previously pregnant than those who have never been pregnant.
- Lifestyle factors: the basic lifestyle factors which helps a women in living health life determines the success rate for the IVF pregnancy.
Because of advancement in reproductive technology in India, IVF success rates are substantially higher today than they were just a few years ago.Because of most affordable IVF treatment cost India has become a destination for fertility tourism. The total cost of the treatment is almost five times lower than IVF cost in western parts of the world.
Complication involved in IVF
- Multiple Birth: It is the major complication that may arise for IVF patient. which is directly related to the process of transferring multiple embryos at embryos transfer. Because of multiple birth complication their is higher risk of pregnancy loss , obstetrical complications,prematurity, neonatal morbidity with the potential for long term damage.
- Sex ratio distortions: some types of IVF in particular ICSI and blastocyst transfer leads to distortion in sex ratio at birth. Mainly ICSI leads to more female birth rate and blastocyst leads to more male birth rate. But if the standard IVF procedure is done at the second or third day it leads to normal sex ratio.
- Spread of infectious disease : By this method the infectious sperms are washed and the risk of male sperm providing infection to female or offspring is brought ot almost negligible level.
- Other risks to the egg provider : during the retrieval of egg their exists small chances of bleeding, infection and damage to surrounding structure like bowel and bladder , also there occurs difficulty in breathing,chest infection, allergic reactions to medication, or nerve damage can also take place.
- Birth defects : Certain birth defects are found very common in infants conceived through IVF, but these birth defects depends on parental factors such as maternal age , smoking status, etc. The increased risk of birth defects associated with IVF is no longer significant after adjustment of parental factors.
- Other risks to the offspring: there is no risk in IVF infants regarding cognitive development, school performance, social function and behaviour. Also, children’s conceived by IVF are securely attached to their parents as the normally conceived children are.
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